UN Photo by Mark Garten UNCITRAL formulates modern, fair and harmonized trade rules. These include conventions, model laws and rules that are globally acceptable; legal and legislative guidelines and recommendations of great practical value; up-to-date information on case law and the adoption of uniform commercial law; technical assistance for legislative reform projects; Regional and national seminars on uniform trade law. During the lab sessions, students acquire basic knowledge of legal English used in international texts (treaties, declarations, recommendations, binding EU legal acts, judgments) in order to understand the techniques used to draft these texts. Timeline easyroom.unisalento.it/Orario You can also download the full text of the scientific publication in pdf format and read the abstract online, if available in the metadata. 7 Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) – Right of the coastal State to protect the marine environmentUnclos allows the coastal State to legislate in its EEZ, but only within the framework of “international rules and standards” (Article 211 “Pollution from ships”) Erika case (can France apply national rules that (allegedly) go beyond the international treaty on accidents outside its territorial sea?) Since this is a laboratory, the assessment focuses on obtaining a qualification by enrolled students. To this end, the concrete participation of students during laboratory hours is fully taken into account. During the exam, the student is invited to critically discuss a legal text in English as discussed and studied during the laboratory. 1 Competences and responsibilities of States. 2 Competences and responsibilities of States State sovereignty as an international concept. The ultimate goal of the course is precisely to improve the ability to express oneself in written English according to the future drafting of legal texts. The course / laboratory will be carried out thanks to the constant involvement of the participants: targeted questions, joint discussion of the analyzed texts and verification of the understanding of the identified design techniques will be the main methods.
In order to stimulate the learning capacity of the participants, the legal texts chosen as a model are discussed in class, also as a first exercise in the use of legal English. 18 Article 230 1. Fines may be imposed only for violations of national legislation or applicable international rules and standards for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment by foreign ships outside the territorial sea. Jurisdictional issues and international cooperation in the fight against cybercrime Anne Flanagan Institute of Computer and Communications Technology Centre for Trade Law. While learning the basics of writing legal texts in English does not in itself develop autonomy of judgment (as is the case in substantive law courses), a good command of these techniques nevertheless improves the critical reading skills of participants compared to the types of legal texts studied. The laboratory aims to provide essential knowledge to understand the preparation of international and European legal texts in English. In an increasingly economically interdependent world, the importance of an improved regulatory framework to facilitate international trade and investment is widely recognized. The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), established by the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution 2205 (XXI) of 17 December 1966 (see annex I), plays an important role in the development of this framework as part of its mandate to promote the progressive harmonization and modernization of the law of international trade by promoting the implementation and adoption of legislative and non-legislative instruments in the field of prepared and promoted a number of key areas of commercial law.
UN photo by Manuel EliasIn an increasingly economically interdependent world, the importance of an improved regulatory framework to facilitate international trade and investment is widely recognized. UNCITRAL plays an important role in the development of this framework, as it is mandated to develop and promote the use and adoption of legislative and non-legislative instruments in a number of key areas. These instruments are negotiated through an international process involving a large number of participants. The composition of UNCITRAL is structured to be representative of different legal traditions and stages of economic development. As a result of this process, UNCITRAL texts are widely accepted as suitable solutions for many different countries at different stages of economic development. 1 26./29. June – Dipartimento di Scienze Giuridiche Unisalento Room R 24International legal framework for maritime environmental crime: UNCLOS, IMO and MARPOL Dr. Alla Pozdnakova Scandinavian Institute for the Law of the Sea, University of Oslo 26/29 June – Dipartimento di Scienze Giuridiche Unisalento Room R 24 19 2. Financial penalties may be imposed only for infringements of national laws, regulations and administrative provisions or applicable international rules and standards for the prevention: reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment by foreign ships in the territorial sea, except in cases of deliberate and serious pollution of the territorial sea.
3. When prosecuting such infringements committed by a foreign vessel, which may give rise to the imposition of penalties, the rights of the accused person shall be respected. 24 Article 218 1. Where a ship is voluntarily located in a port or offshore terminal of a State, that State may investigate and, if the evidence so warrants, initiate proceedings concerning the unloading of the ship outside the internal waters, territorial sea or exclusive economic zone of that State in violation of applicable international rules and standards: as determined by the competent international organization or the General Diplomatic Conference. The UNCITRAL secretariat has established a system for collecting and disseminating information on judicial decisions and arbitral awards relating to conventions and model laws resulting from the work of the Commission. The purpose of this system is to promote international knowledge of the legal texts prepared by the Commission and to facilitate the uniform interpretation and application of these texts. 29 Concluding remarks Need to harmonize and further develop the definition of a pollution crime and penalties Need for better protection of captain and crew (UNCLOS fails to do this) States must apply articles 220 and 218 with greater confidence To achieve this, it is necessary to further clarify international law and to continue research on State practice! Allen, Rob.